The evolution of Eco-friendly aircraft Coventry
The evolution of Eco-friendly aircraft
Ever since the airline industry started booming in the late 20th century, aircraft manufacturers and their engineers have been constantly and iteratively improving the fuel efficiency of their aircraft. Especially after the oil crisis in the 1970s caused by a disruption in oil supplies from the Yom-Kippur War and the Iranian Revolution of 1979.
The nations who relied on the region’s energy exports such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the U.S, Japan and western Europe suffered large shortages in petroleum supplies and in turn high prices. This event paved the way for high capacity fuel efficient aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and crippled the newly blossoming supersonic industry in the Concord. Being forced to create more fuel-efficient aircraft, manufacturers had to find innovative ways to improve the carbon footprint of aircraft.
Aircraft manufacturers frequently outsourced their engines from experienced companies such as Rolls Royce. Initially large airlines utilized turbo jet engines which consisted of an air inlet, compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine which propelled the aircraft of the time with loud jets of hot air rapidly escaping the exhaust nozzle. As turbo fan engines began to be refined to the point of feasibility, aircraft began adopting the more fuel efficient low-bypass turbofans of that era.
These engines were essentially the same as the turbo jet but they had a large ducted fan that fell before the compressors which provided most of the thrust. The bypass ratio of a turbofan is the ratio of the mass flow rate of the “bypass stream” (Flow of air around the compressor, combustion chamber and turbine) to the mass flow rate entering “the core” (compressor, combustion chamber and a turbine). The higher the bypass ratio and the internal temperature of the combustion chamber and turbine, the more thrust can be produced by the engines.
Engineers have been continually increasing the bypass ratio and the maximum internal temperature of the core in order to increase thrust and fuel efficiency. Some innovations such as the chevrons on the engine nacelles of some Boeing aircraft reduce sound levels but also reduce thrust, this shows exactly how engineering is a tug of war battle with physics.
Airline manufacturers have been copying nature for efficient air foils (the cross section of a wing that produces a pressure difference on either side which results in lift or downforce).
The wingtips of aircraft have had a larger emphasis on the fuel efficiency and stability recently. On the tips of wings there are areas of “bleeding” where the high-pressure air beneath the wing is able to flow around the outside of the wing to the low-pressure air above creating vortices (spirals of air) which increased drag and diminished lift at the tip of the wing. Wing tips acted as barriers to prevent the air from reaching the top of the wing or to shift the vortices away from the wing.
Newer more complex wingtips are being tested and fitted to existing aircraft and new aircraft which also help increase lift and in turn increase fuel efficiency.
Possible aircraft innovation
Obvious improvements like solar panels incorporated to aircraft are being considered, however there are multiple areas of improvement such as the use of electric engines but there are no batteries with a high enough capacity right now but there will always be improvements made by the genius engineers behind each aircraft.
Article by David Ogolo
School: St Georges Sixth Form, Harpenden, England
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Unemployment in India- Problems and Solutions
Unemployment basically refers to the state where an individual is deprived of work in order to attain livelihood in the form of income. This problem is witnessed basically in overpopulated countries where population is quite large in comparison to its limited resources. The economy of a country suffers setback because of employment which plays a major part in the development of a country. Every country has a different way of dealing towards this problem like for example in India there was a scheme of 1000 rupees per month as an unemployment allowance announced by the State Government of Uttar Pradesh in 2012 for poor youth who can maintain their studies. Similarly Universal pay Income of 5000 Rupees per unemployed by the Indian Congress leader Rahul Gandhi during the Lok Sabha 2019 Election Campaign was an effective plan since that would motivate the unemployed youth to a large extent and would have curbed in the prevention of various crimes as the youths would have found themselves in a state of business. Mostly youth commit crime owing to the fact of not having enough economical support from the government. There is lack of social development too responsible for this problem. For example- In India this problem is mainly because of lack of institutions such as Health care and Education which nearly accounts for certain percentage of employment. Doctors and teachers are finding themselves in a state of bother as far as the employment area is concerned.
Employment generation takes place by investing in institutions of maximum percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health and education also assisted with providing special training to the teachers and medical practitioners which in turn lead to the overall development and construction of nation, since a healthy and educated individual will only be able to tackle his needs and requirement on a day to day basis. Globalisation of education and health care would also culminate in bringing new brains and would liquidate the economy of a country. The problem of unemployment is quite grave which can be traced to old times, under-developed countries are facing ever worse condition than those of developing nations. Developed countries does not seem to face this issue owing to their holistic development with limited population and huge resources, these countries attract brain drain from other countries on a large scale owing to limited manpower. For any country to prosper, population control should be initiated since large population leads to shortage of resources per individuals which result in various negative activities like theft, murder, extortion, money- laundering, thug, dacoity etc for the sake of money along with land related offences. All these penal problems as mentioned are stated in Indian Penal Code, 1860 the trial is conducted and justice too is given but the work to curb all this is the reason of unemployment and the concerned connected laws associated with it. There should be population control law should be made in the concerned legislature of any country which Indian Government is failing to do so currently. There was a time in India when Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister the law related to population control was initiated but that did not last long. The current Indian Government apparently seems to neglect the important issues that can generate the employment like Health Care and Education as already mentioned along with Agriculture, Industrial development etc which generates employment in the form of labour, manpower and resources on a large scale. There should be unemployed allowance of which the womens should be provided more in comparison so that they can process their maintenance of livelihood also can maintain themselves. The problem of unemployment and initiating laws to tackle it is being neglected by the Indian Government.
To conclude, the unemployment contains lots of negatives and if not handled by the concerned nations it would be quite fatal in the near future. Example of India with 135 crores of population where there is lots of income disparity, currently there is no room being visible of employment. The Indian government is not focussing on developing infrastructure such as agriculture, medical health care, school construction, proper education which constitutes greatly for employment. Employment is the problem to every negative activities of crime as already mentioned earlier. Once there is development of institution there will be demand for manpower which will assist in problem of solution of unemployment along with the population control policy. Last but not the least the government should involved big players of corporate house under corporate social responsibility to come forward and aid the poor in getting the employment by collaborating with government to build institution effectively. With all these points, it is quite clear and evident that problem of unemployment is not impossible to solve yet it requires special concern from the government.
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The National Oceanographic Center of Great Britain conducted a study according to which 12-21 million tons of plastic waste and various debris were identified in the Atlantic Ocean at a depth of 200 meters.
Scientists from the UK have declared a significant underestimation of the plastic pollution of the Atlantic Ocean. According to researchers, up to 21 million tons of microplastics have accumulated in the upper waters of the Atlantic alone, and about 200 million tons of plastic waste may be present in the ocean. Earlier it was reported only about 17 million tons.